The Muslim Brotherhood : Evolution of an Islamist Movement - Updated Edition

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      PRINCETON; OXFORD: Princeton University Press, 2015. REV - Revised.
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      Edition: REV - Revised
    • Abstract:
      Following the Arab Spring, the Muslim Brotherhood achieved a level of influence previously unimaginable. Yet the implications of the Brotherhood's rise and dramatic fall for the future of democratic governance, peace, and stability in the region are disputed and remain open to debate. Drawing on more than one hundred in-depth interviews as well as Arabic-language sources never before accessed by Western researchers, Carrie Rosefsky Wickham traces the evolution of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt from its founding in 1928 to the fall of Hosni Mubarak and the watershed elections of 2011-2012. Highlighting elements of movement continuity and change, Wickham demonstrates that shifts in Islamist worldviews, goals, and strategies are not the result of a single strand of cause and effect, and provides a systematic, fine-grained account of Islamist group evolution in Egypt and the wider Arab world. In a new afterword, Wickham discusses what has happened in Egypt since Muhammad Morsi was ousted and the Muslim Brotherhood fell from power.
    • Contents Note:
      Front Matterp.iTable of Contentsp.viiPrefacep.ixAcknowledgmentsp.xiiiNote on Transliterationp.xviiCHAPTER ONE - Conceptualizing Islamist Movement Changep.1On June 30, 2012, Muhammad Mursi, a leader in the Muslim Brotherhood, was sworn in as Egypt’s new president. To longtime observers of politics in the region, the event felt surreal. An Is lam ist organization that had spent most of its existence denied legal status and subject to the depredations of a hostile authoritarian state was now in charge of the very apparatus once used to repress it. And it had reached those heights not by way of coup or revolution but through the ballot box. Just eighteen months earlier, the idea of a Brotherhood president of Egypt wasCHAPTER TWO - The Brotherhood’s Early Yearsp.20Founded by Hasan al-Banna in Egypt in 1928, the Muslim Brotherhood is the flagship organization of Sunni revivalist Islam and has been in existence longer than any other contemporary Islamist group in the Arab world. Today it is the most powerful nonstate actor in Egypt, with over eighty million people, the largest Arab country. It is also the “mother organization” of Brotherhood affiliates in Jordan, Palestine, Kuwait, Syria, Iraq, Sudan, and Bahrain and has served as a model and source of inspiration for Sunni revivalist groups in Arab North Africa as well. Aside from the Brotherhood’s obvious real-world importance, itsCHAPTER THREE - The Brotherhood’s Foray into Electoral Politicsp.46Hosni Mubarak’s inauguration as Egypt’s president in 1981 set the stage for a new phase in the Brotherhood’s development. Beginning in the mid-1980s, the Brotherhood expanded its presence in various spheres of public life and quickly established itself as the leading edge of the opposition. From this point forward, we see a marked increase in the Brotherhood’s references to global norms of democracy and human rights. The Brotherhood invoked the language of democracy in part to challenge the conditions of its own exclusion. Yet this new emphasis also reflected the sensibilities of a cadre of Brotherhood activists who came toCHAPTER FOUR - The Wasat Party Initiative and the Brotherhood’s Responsep.76In retrospect, the first decade of Mubarak’s rule can be seen as the high point of the Brotherhood’s participation within a system of authoritarian rule. During that time, the jama . a enjoyed a greater margin of freedom than at any time since 1952,¹ only to see it erode considerably in the years to come. The regime’s hands-off approach to the Brotherhood at the time did not signal its acceptance of the group as a legitimate political actor so much as its desire to avoid conflict and maintain the social peace. As Egyptian scholar Ahmed Abdalla observed: Deferring confrontation was anCHAPTER FIVE - The Brotherhood’s Seesaw between Self-Assertion and Self-Restraintp.96The paradoxical status of the Muslim Brotherhood on the eve of the Egyptian uprising is striking. It was the largest and best-organized sector of the political opposition—and an illegal group accused of seeking to undermine the public order and the state. During the last decade of the Mubarak era, the Brotherhood walked a fine line, seeking to avoid a collision with the regime while asserting its right to a leading role in public life. The arc of the Brotherhood’s strategy during this period can be likened to the swing of a pendulum, seesawing between moments of self-assertion and momentsCHAPTER SIX - Repression and Retrenchmentp.120From 2005 to 2010 the Mubarak regime took new steps to contain the Brotherhood, and in response the group ramped up its calls for constitutional and political reform. But heightened security pressure strengthened the hand of Brotherhood conservatives at the expense of those advocating fundamental change in the Brotherhood itself. Further, for all their complaints about the regime’s dictatorial practices, the Brotherhood’s senior leaders were unwilling to confront it head-on. Frustrated by the old guard’s excessive caution, some younger members of the group urged them to adopt a bolder stance against Mubarak. But until the outbreak of the Egyptian popularCHAPTER SEVEN - The Brotherhood and the Egyptian Uprisingp.154The massive popular uprising that erupted in Egypt on January 25, 2011, produced a sea change that no one could have predicted just a few weeks earlier. President Hosni Mubarak, who had ruled the country without any serious challenge for thirty years, resigned from his post after just eighteen days of protest. Yet the success of the uprising was not a function of “people power” alone; it hinged on the support of the Egyptian military, the only institution in the country capable of forcing Mubarak to step down. Though hailed as a “revolution” ( thawra ) in Egypt and in the globalCHAPTER EIGHT - Egypt’s Islamist Movement in Comparative Perspectivep.196To what extent does the evolution of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt reflect a wider pattern of Islamist movement change? This chapter places the Brotherhood in comparative perspective by considering the paths taken by its counterparts in Jordan, Kuwait, and Morocco. My aim is not to offer a full account of the development of such groups. Rather, drawing on research I conducted in each country in the mid-2000s and building on the work of other scholars, I sketch the broad outlines of Islamist movement change in Jordan, Kuwait, and Morocco, highlighting key parallels with—and divergences from—the Egyptian case.CHAPTER NINE - The Muslim Brotherhood in (Egypt’s) Transitionp.247What path has the Muslim Brotherhood taken in the wake of the Egyptian uprising, and what role will it play in shaping the country’s new political order? This chapter leads off with an effort to address these questions, focusing on the Brotherhood’s stunning victories in recent parliamentary and presidential elections and the pushback it has encountered from other forces in Egyptian society. As we will see, the Brotherhood’s actions exhibit the same uneasy mix of self-assertion and self-restraint that marked its behavior during the Mubarak era, albeit under a very different set of circumstances. Which of these impulses will prevailAfterword to the Paperback Editionp.289When this book went to press in November 2012, the Muslim Brotherhood was at the height of its power. Muhammad Mursi, the head of the Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party, had been sworn in as Egypt’s president in June. By early August, a new cabinet under Mursi’s direction was up and running, and Brotherhood appointees had assumed key posts in the state administration. The Brotherhood was also the leading force in the Shura Council, the upper house of parliament, which functioned as the country’s sole legislative body after the suspension of the People’s Assembly that spring.¹ And a commission dominatedEndnotesp.325List of Interviewsp.369Selected Bibliographyp.373Indexp.389
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      Princeton University Press, 2013
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      WICKHAM, C. R. The Muslim Brotherhood : Evolution of an Islamist Movement - Updated Edition. PRINCETON; OXFORD: Princeton University Press, 2015. ISBN 978-0-691-16364-2. Disponível em: Acesso em: 21 out. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Wickham CR. The Muslim Brotherhood : Evolution of an Islamist Movement - Updated Edition. Princeton University Press; 2015. Accessed October 21, 2020.
    • APA:
      Wickham, C. R. (2015). The Muslim Brotherhood : Evolution of an Islamist Movement - Updated Edition. Princeton University Press.
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      Wickham, Carrie Rosefsky. 2015. The Muslim Brotherhood : Evolution of an Islamist Movement - Updated Edition. PRINCETON; OXFORD: Princeton University Press.
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      Wickham, C. R. (2015) The Muslim Brotherhood : Evolution of an Islamist Movement - Updated Edition. PRINCETON; OXFORD: Princeton University Press. Available at: (Accessed: 21 October 2020).
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      Wickham, CR 2015, The Muslim Brotherhood : Evolution of an Islamist Movement - Updated Edition, Princeton University Press, PRINCETON; OXFORD, viewed 21 October 2020, .
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      Wickham, Carrie Rosefsky. The Muslim Brotherhood : Evolution of an Islamist Movement - Updated Edition. Princeton University Press, 2015. EBSCOhost,
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Wickham, Carrie Rosefsky. The Muslim Brotherhood : Evolution of an Islamist Movement - Updated Edition. PRINCETON; OXFORD: Princeton University Press, 2015.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Wickham CR. The Muslim Brotherhood : Evolution of an Islamist Movement - Updated Edition [Internet]. PRINCETON; OXFORD: Princeton University Press; 2015 [cited 2020 Oct 21]. Available from:


LJ Reviews 2013 June #2

The recent Arab uprisings—the "Arab Spring"—led to grassroots sociopolitical movements challenging political stagnation in the Arab world and is still shaping the contours of emerging systems in the Arab countries. Although the outcome of these revolts against authoritarian regimes, old and new, is still uncertain, what has become clear is that mainstream Islamist groups have risen in stature and power. Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood, the Arab world's oldest Islamist group, emerged in post-Mubarak Egypt as one of the most serious contenders for power. On June 30, 2012, Muhammad Mursi, a brotherhood leader, became Egypt's first democratically elected president. In this richly researched book, Wickham (political science, Emory Univ.; Mobilizing Islam) provides the most in-depth analysis of the genesis and development of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood available in English. She examines the changes that have taken place in the brotherhood's philosophy from its inception in 1928 to Mursi's inauguration, discussing how this movement adapted itself to the periods of severe repression that it experienced for over 60 years. The author also provides a comparative analysis of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood with similar movements in Jordan, Kuwait, and Morocco. VERDICT This valuable contribution to the literature on mainstream Islamist movements will be useful to scholars and policymakers alike.—Nader Entessar, Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile

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PW Reviews 2013 June #1

This timely publication emerges from Emory University political scientist Wickham's (Mobilizing Islam) long-term research into the institutional and ideological nuances of "movement change" within the Muslim Brotherhood—the Sunni revivalist organization that was the leading opponent of the Mubarak regime in Egypt before the popular uprising of January 2011. After the fall of Mubarak, the Brotherhood's political party won a plurality of seats in the Egyptian parliament. The Brotherhood was founded in Egypt in 1928 by Hasan al-Banna, in opposition to foreign domination and the expansion of Western cultural values and practices there. While emphasizing reformist currents and the complicated interplay of shifting ideological commitments, Wickham's analysis highlights inherent contradictions in the movement. The picture of Egypt's Brotherhood, divided from the beginning by opposing gradualist and extremist tendencies, benefits from Wickham's astute analysis of related movements in Jordan, Kuwait, and Morocco. A chapter on the Brotherhood's role in the 2011 uprising and its subsequent transformation offers detailed insights that will interest general readers and academics alike. This admirable study (based on hundreds of interviews) is a judicious, well-grounded plea for complexity in the depiction and analysis of Islamist movements. (Aug.)

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